As of the beginning of March 2016, there is still a two teired testing system in place in North America. The recomendation of the CDC (Center for Disease Control) is that the primary test be given. this thest is called the ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunoassay) - it is a simple, inexpensive test for detection of antibodies created as a response to an infection with Borrelia Burgdorferi.
The main problem with the ELISA test is that its as often wrong as it is right (see studies in picture) The CDC and others openly admit that the test is substandard. The problem becomes when doctors are not aware of the tests failings and dont know symptomology for a clinical diagnosis, they don't continue on to the second tier and use the Western Blot test.
The Western Blot, the testing laboratory looks for antibodies directed against a wide range of Bb proteins. Most labratories test for Borrelia Burgdoferi only. The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, other common borrelia species are B. hermsii, B. parkeri, or B. miyamotoi Full list here
Another test is the Lyme ELISPOT assay.
The Elispot Assay is based on the proof of an antigene-specific cytokines-secretion by reactive lymphocytes. T-Lymphocytes are stimulated by an interesting antigene, e.g. by Borrelia species. If this leads to a antigene-specific release of cytokines, these are bound by monoclonal anti-bodies, which covers irreversibly the ground of the reaction container with spots and these are made visible by a further secondary anti-body. see more
Negative control (left) does not show provable cytokines production with unstimulated lymphocytes. The positive result (right) shows the specific cytokines production after an antigene contact, visibile as numerous spots. Each spot stands for one specifically reactive lymphocyte
The ELISPOT method utilized in iSpot Lyme™ is the most sensitive technique available for detecting immune cells that secrete signature proteins (such as a given cytokine). It is the only technology that accurately detects, measures, and performs functional analysis of low-frequency immune cells. The sensitivity of ELISPOT is much higher than that of ELISA and Western Blot. more
The ELISPOT method was developed by Cecil Czerkinsky’s group in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1983, for the purpose of detecting antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in a B cell ELISPOT assay, which was a modification of a traditional sandwich ELISA immunoassay. The ELISPOT assay has since been more widely adopted for the identification and enumeration of cytokine-producing cells at the single cell level, but is still used for detection of ASC.
Simply put, at appropriate conditions the ELISPOT assay allows visualization of the secretory product(s) of individual activated or responding cells. Each spot that develops in the assay represents a single reactive cell. Thus, the ELISPOT assay provides both qualitative (regarding the specific cytokine or other secreted immune molecule) and quantitative (the frequency of responding cells within the test population) information. more
THE CD-57 TEST Dr Burrascano's guidelines
Our ability to measure CD-57 counts represents a breakthrough in LB diagnosis and treatment.
Chronic LB infections are known to suppress the immune system and can decrease the quantity of the CD-57 subset of the natural killer cells. As in HIV infection, where abnormally low T-cell counts are routinely used as a marker of how active that infection is, in LB we can use the degree of decrease of the CD-57 count to indicate how active the Lyme infection is and whether, after treatment ends, a relapse is likely to occur. It can even be used as a simple, inexpensive screening test, because at this point we believe that only Borrelia will depress the CD-57. Thus, a sick patient with a high CD-57 is probably ill with something other than Lyme, such as a co- infection.
When this test is run by LabCorp (the currently preferred lab, as published studies were based on their assays), we want our Lyme patients to measure above 60; a normal count is above 200. There generally is some degree of fluctuation of this count over time, and the number does not progressively increase as treatment proceeds. Instead, it remains low until the LB infection is controlled, and then it will jump. If the CD- 57 count is not in the normal range when a course of antibiotics is ended, then a relapse will almost certainly occur. see more
Signs and symptoms of heavy metal exposure will vary in nature and intensity depending on the type and quantity of metal involved; early symptoms of poisoning can be missed because they are often non-specific. Excessive exposure and damage to several different organs can occur even if a person has no, few, or nonspecific symptoms. Some signs and symptoms of metal poisoning may include:
Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Nervous system symptoms such as numbness, tingling of hands and feet, weakness
In the lungs – irritation, edema
Brain dysfunction, memory loss
Mees lines (horizontal lines on nails)
Changes in behavior
Heavy metals panels are used to screen for or to diagnose heavy metal poisoning in those who may have been acutely orchronically exposed to one or more heavy metals and to monitor excessive metal concentrations in those who work with various heavy metals. Testing is also conducted to monitor the efficacy of chelation therapy, a treatment to rid the body of high amounts of a heavy metal. Heavy metals cause similiar symptoms and create a different detoxing approach. It is highly recommended